Sandspit, Ridges, and Protrusion
Quantification of cross-shore sediment transport is one of most intriguing challenges in coastal geomorphology. Recent field observations off Fire Island, NY showed that ripples migrated onshore even during periods of offshore directed wave skewness, which is contradictory to the prediction of empirical sediment transport formulations. The physical processes driving ripple vortex formation/ejection and boundary layer streaming associated with rippled bed and surface waves can further complicate the bedload/suspended load sediment transport over ripples. To fully understand these mechanisms, a comprehensive model that can resolve the ripple dynamics and interactions between free surface wave and rippled bed are examined.