During root canal instrumentation, several incidents might jeopardize the outcome of endodontic therapy. In the past, several in vitro studies, have shown an association between root canal treatment procedures with the creation of dentinal defects. Theoretically these defects could propagate and develop in a VRF, which often times results in extraction of the affected tooth. Recently, different studies with more accurate methodologies, have questioned whether root canal instrumentation is related to the development of defects. Meanwhile, due to this called risk of fracture, there is a trend of less invasive preparation of the root canal. This trend emcompasses both endodontic access and root canal instrumentation. This presentation aims to discuss whether root canal instrumentation might lead to dentinal defects. What is the real impact of conservative root canal preparation in dentinal defects and consequently VRF? Are the procedures currently used for root canal disinfection sufficent for proper disinfection with such conservative instrumentation? This presentations aims to discuss with an unbiased and scientific approach the relationship between root canal instrumentation and dentinal defects.