Organized Panel Session
In the context of forty years of military confrontation between Zheng regime and the Qing empire, many studies often described the maritime groups of Chinese south-eastern coastal regions simply as the parts of resistance force of Zheng regime against Qing, with a few exceptions like Shi-Lang or Huang-Wu. However, many maritime groups, which had belonged to the Zheng regime or stood neutral, gradually have changed their stances and supported the Qing empire for their own interests. Despite all the suspicious voices on the reliability of their cooperation, the Qing was inevitably using their help to suppress the Zheng regime. As a result, when Qing invaded Taiwan, the main-force units of Qing fleet were stuffed with many maritime groups that were not cooperating with Qing, or even the ones were part of the Zheng regime before.
This paper will examine the transition of the maritime groups into the Pro-Qing maritime forces by tracing the identities of major veteran officers of Taiwan expeditionary army. This will prove the fact that the Qing recruited those maritime groups as the core members of the Qing navy force for the conquest of Zheng regime. Furthermore, many of them successfully maintained their states in Qing navy after expedition.