Buddhism is often not prevalent in discussions on the religious landscape of the Ryukyu archipelago. Prior scholarship, such as anthropologist William Lebra’s Okinawan Religion engages the “indigenous” aspects of Ryukyuan religion, namely female-centered shamanism, animism, and ancestor worship. Ryukyuans, especially those involved in fishing or other maritime trades, were also avid worshippers of Mazu, the Fujianese goddess of the seas. Yet, the presence of centuries-old royal Buddhist temples, namely Enkakuji and Gokokuji in Naha, demonstrate that Buddhism also enjoyed a long-standing relationship with the island kingdom. From the fourteenth century, Ryukyuan kings received instruction from resident Japanese monks. In the early seventeenth century, the Japanese monk Taichū (1552-1639) spent three years in Ryukyu proselyting Pure Land Buddhism while he awaited passage to Ming China to further his doctrinal studies. Taichū would significantly figure in Ryukyuan religious history through his authorship and publication of the Ryūkyū Shintōki, a five-volume compendium of the religious beliefs and practices he observed during his sojourn. Temples and Taichū aside, perhaps Buddhism’s most significant contribution to the Ryukyus was that temples and monks served as conduits for information, learning, and technology. In the years preceding the Satsuma invasion of the kingdom in 1609, Buddhist priests were tapped as political and diplomatic advisers due to their understanding of regional affairs. This paper draws on literary and historical sources in an attempt to untangle the relationships between Buddhism, particularly Japanese Buddhism, and premodern Ryukyuan society.