Hamza Abdulla, MD, Shehzad N. Merwat, MD, Heather Stevenson, MD, Rupak Kulkarni, MD
University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX
Introduction: Hepatitis C recurrence following liver transplantation occurs in all patients with chronic HCV infection who have detectable serum HCV RNA levels prior to transplant. Less than 10% of these patients develop an acute and severe phenotype called fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, which often involves fibrosis, rapid graft loss and decreased survival. The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have changed the paradigm of treatment of these patients.
Case Description/Methods: A 62 year old woman with a medical history of hepatitis C infection, hepatocellular carcinoma status post orthotropic liver transplantation, diabetes mellitus and hypertension who was hospitalized for fatigue and elevated liver chemistries following her liver transplantation. Laboratory tests showed a white cell count 6.67 × 103/μL, creatinine 1.1 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase 592 U/L, alanine aminotransferase 504U/L, alkaline phosphatase 312 U/L, bilirubin 3.5 mg/dL, albumin 2.9 g/dL. Acute hepatitis work up showed a positive hepatitis C virus antibodies with genotype 1B, with a viral load of 80 million IU/mL HCV RNA. HBsAg, HBc IgG, HBc IgM, and hepatitis A virus IgM were negative. Evaluation for Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus were negative. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed that the liver is normal in size, echotexture and contours. No focal hepatic lesions. Normal hepatic blood flow. The patient underwent liver biopsy that showed lymphocytic portal inflammation with frequent lobular apoptosis consistent with active chronic hepatitis C (MHAI: 5-6/18). Mild portal fibrosis (ISHAK FIBROSIS STAGE: 1/6) and minimal evidence of acute t cell-mediated rejection (rejection activity index: 1/9). During the patient hospitalization her liver chemistries significantly worsened and peaked to aspartate aminotransferase 740 U/L, alanine aminotransferase 511U/L, alkaline phosphatase 312 U/L, bilirubin 3.5 mg/dL. We decided to start the patient on Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir for acute and severe hepatitis. Fourteen days after starting Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir, the patient viral load decreased to 782 IU/mL HCV RNA and normalized liver chemistries with AST19 and ALT 27. The patient denied any adverse events due to the treatment.
Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of treating early and aggressive form of HCV recurrence with Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir. The dramatic improvement of the patient suggest that DAA might be safe and effective in this situation.
Citation: Hamza Abdulla, MD, Shehzad N. Merwat, MD, Heather Stevenson, MD, Rupak Kulkarni, MD. P0736 - RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE HEPATITIS C AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION TREATED WITH GLECAPREVIR/PIBRENTASVIR. Program No. P0736. ACG 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts. San Antonio, Texas: American College of Gastroenterology.