Michael Ashamalla, MD1, Praneet Wander, MD1, Jessica Pizzuti, MD1, Diana Lech, MD1, Arvind Rishi, MD2, Taisia Vitkovski, DO3, Ronald Greenberg, MD1
1Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY; 2Manhasset, NY; 3Northwell Health, Lake Success, NY
Introduction: AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor associated with infection by the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) that most commonly affects mucocutaneous sites. In its disseminated form, it can also involve lymph nodes and visceral organs, in particular the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Visceral involvement as the initial manifestation of KS is extremely rare and carries a worse prognosis. We present a case of a 54 year old Male with disseminated KS with rectal involvement presenting with cough and chills.
Case Description/Methods: 54 year old Male with a past medical history significant for HIV, not adherent with HAART therapy, who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a chief complaint of cough and subjective chills of three days duration. He later endorsed recent sick contacts, bloody diarrhea, and a 40lb weight loss over the last year. In the ED, he was hypotensive and tachycardic and found to have a CD4 13 with a viral load of 3 million copies/ml. A CT Chest showed evidence of bilateral pleural effusions for which he was started on broad spectrum antibiotics. He underwent bronchoscopy with BAL which showed small nodules suspicious for KS versus Lymphoma. His hospital course was complicated by microcytic anemia (Hb 6.1 on admission) with a positive fecal occult test requiring multiple blood transfusions. Gastroenterology was consulted and the patient underwent colonoscopy which showed evidence of a large, non obstructing, fungating mass in the distal rectum. The mass had a purple hue, was noncircumferential, and was confluent with multiple scattered oozing purple sessile nodules. Biopsies were taken with cold forceps for histology. The rectal biopsy was positive for Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8) and he was diagnosed with disseminated KS. He was subsequently transferred to the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Maryland after failed initial treatment for further management and care.
Discussion: Visceral involvement as the initial presentation of KS is rare and carries a worse prognosis. While gastrointestinal KS lesions are usually asymptomatic, they may also cause a wide array of symptoms including nausea and vomiting, weight loss, upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Because visceral involvement is rare as the initial presentation, the possibility of disseminated KS in an immunocompromised patient is often over looked and thus, a high index of suspicion is required.
Citation: Michael Ashamalla, MD; Praneet Wander, MD; Jessica Pizzuti, MD; Diana Lech, MD; Arvind Rishi, MD; Taisia Vitkovski, DO; Ronald Greenberg, MD. P0182 - VISCERAL INVOLVEMENT AS THE INITIAL PRESENTATION OF KAPOSI SARCOMA CARRIES A WORSE PROGNOSIS. Program No. P0182. ACG 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts. San Antonio, Texas: American College of Gastroenterology.