Sozaburo Ihara, MD, PhD, Kosuke Sakitani, MD, PhD, Hiroaki Fujiwara, MD, PhD
The Institute for Adult Diseases, Asahi Life Foundation, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Introduction: Cigarette smoking is regarded as a weak or moderate risk factor of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and smoking cessation may reduce GERD symptoms. However, the evidence for these associations is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking or smoking cessation on the development of GERD by using endoscopic findings and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS).
Methods: The subjects were 848 patients who received upper endoscopy and answered the GSRS questionnaire as health checkup at our hospital in Japan. The patients were divided into three groups; non-smoking, smoking-cessation, and current-smoking group (322, 371 and 155 patients, respectively). Endoscopic findings of GERD were graded by the Los Angeles classification, and grade B or more were defined as severe GERD. The GSRS questionnaire is an interview-based seven-graded rating scale including the questions on heart burn and acid regurgitation. The prevalence of patients with positive GSRS scores (i.e. 2 or more) was compared between three groups. Data were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, or chi-square test.
Results: The overall prevalence of endoscopic GERD and positive GSRS scores on heart burn and acid regurgitation was 19.2, 14.5, and 19.7%, respectively. The prevalence of patients with severe endoscopic GERD in smoking group was significantly higher than that in non-smoking group (OR: 4.64; 95% CI: 1.47-14.67; p = 0.007). In contrast, the prevalence of patients with positive GSRS scores on heart burn in smoking group was significantly lower than that in non-smoking group (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26-0.80; p = 0.006). As for smoking cessation, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of patients with severe endoscopic GERD between smoking-cessation and current-smoking group (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.11-1.18; p = 0.149). Also, there was no significant difference in positive GSRS scores between smoking-cessation and current-smoking group (heart burn; p = 0.077, and acid regurgitation; p = 0.871).
Discussion: Cigarette smoking increases risk of developing endoscopic GERD severity, while not developing GERD symptoms. Upper endoscopy may be useful for Japanese using cigarette even if they have no GERD symptoms. Although smoking cessation is not associated with improvement of endoscopic GERD severity in this study, prospective studies should be performed to evaluate the effects of smoking cessation on GERD.
Citation: Sozaburo Ihara, MD, PhD, Kosuke Sakitani, MD, PhD, Hiroaki Fujiwara, MD, PhD. P1183 - THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CIGARETTE SMOKING AND GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE IN JAPAN: ANALYSIS OF SYMPTOMS AND ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS. Program No. P1183. ACG 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts. San Antonio, Texas: American College of Gastroenterology.