Sindhu Kilakkathi, MD, Rushikesh Shah, MD, Francis Edward LeVert, II, MD
Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA
Introduction: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is now a commonly used mode of treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) refractory to antibiotics. We report a unique case where two sessions of sequential FMT were used to treat acute rCDI refractory to antibiotics with endoscopically documented marked improvement in disease process.
Case Description/Methods: A 69 year-old female presented with 4 days of fever, large volume non-bloody diarrhea and poor appetite. She denied abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. She reported two months before this admission, she was treated for hospital-acquired CDI, but could not recall what she was treated with. Physical examination revealed a non-tender abdomen without guarding or rigidity. Laboratory tests revealed hemoglobin 11.3 g/dL and white blood cell (WBC) count 18,700/mcL. Stool testing was positive for C. difficile toxin assay. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed diffuse pancolitis, compatible with CDI, no evidence of bowel perforation or obstruction. Despite treatment with oral vancomycin (500 mg every 6 hours), intravenous metronidazole and probiotics for 5 days, her leukocytosis increased to 32,000/mcL, hemoglobin dropped to 6 g/dL and her symptoms persisted. The decision was made to try FMT and antibiotics were stopped for 48 hours as per FMT protocol. Colonoscopy showed severe pancolitis (Figure 1) and pseudomembranes consistent with severe C. difficile colitis with distal ascending colonic mucosa concerning for ischemia. 250 mL of donor stool was delivered at the proximal transverse colon. After the first FMT, mild improvement was noted in her symptoms and leukocytosis but she persisted to have severe diarrhea. A second FMT was performed 4 days later. Repeat colonoscopy (Figure 2) showed marked improvement in the appearance of pancolonic erythema, inflammation and pseudomembranes compared to prior. 250 mL of donor stool was infused through the colonoscope into the cecum. The following day after the second FMT, the patient began having formed stool and improved leukocytosis. She was discharged from the hospital 3 days after the second FMT with normal stool consistency and normal WBC count.
Discussion: There have been no clear data regarding directing severe rCDI treatment with regards to the length of time in between FMTs. Clinicians should be aware that patients may need multiple FMTs to treat rCDI. A shorter duration in between FMTs may rapidly improve severe rCDI, reduce the duration of hospitalization, and improve outcomes.
Citation: Sindhu Kilakkathi, MD, Rushikesh Shah, MD, Francis Edward LeVert, II, MD. P1100 - SEQUENTIAL FECAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANTATION FOR SEVERE ACUTE REFRACTORY CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE COLITIS: A LIFE-SAVING TREATMENT APPROACH. Program No. P1100. ACG 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts. San Antonio, Texas: American College of Gastroenterology.