Category: Brain Injury; Lifestyle Medicine
Objective : To evaluate weight change trajectories among survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) across pre-injury, 6, 12, and 24-months post-injury.
Design : Multi-center, prospective cohort, observational design
Setting : Inpatient and community-based
Participants (or Animals, Specimens, Cadavers) : N = 209 survivors of TBI (75.5% male; M age = 41 years old [SD = 17.02]) participating in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) Center study
Interventions : None
Main Outcome Measure(s) : Self-reported changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) categories
Results : The majority of participants (69.6%) had a weight change of less than 3 pounds over the duration of the 2-year study, while 6.1% had a change of 3 to 5 pounds, 2.0% 5 to 7 pounds, 3.4% 7 to 10 pounds, and 18.9% 10 pounds or more. The proportion of participants who were overweight increased (31.2% to 32.2%); while those who were in the healthy category decreased across 24-months post-injury (43.3% to 24%). The proportion who were obese or underweight remained fairly stable. A linear mixed model analysis showed a mean weight gain of 0.24 pounds per month across all participants, adjusting for age and gender (p = 0.005). Latent class analysis revealed a 4-group model provided the best fit for the data. The lowest weight group gained a small amount of weight over time, and the highest weight group lost a small amount of weight over time. The two intermediate weight groups remained fairly stable, with different weights at pre-injury.
While weight changes were relatively subtle, the findings do have implications for health promotion and wellness efforts to prevent secondary health conditions and to enhance overall health among survivors of TBI across recovery.
Laura Dreer– Associate Professor, Universtity of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
Christina DiBlasio– Graduate Student, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
Doug Johnson-Greene– Professor and Vice Chairman, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
Jennifer Bogner– Professor, Ohio State University, Carroll, Ohio
Elizabeth Felix– Associate Professor, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
Richard Kennedy– Assistant Professor, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Trussville, Alabama
John Corrigan– Professor, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Dave Mellick– Research Associate & Data Core Director for the TBI Model Systems National Data and Statistical Center, Craig Hospital, Englewood, Colorado
Molly Cox– Clinical Researcher/Interventionist, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
Thomas Novack– Professor, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama