Community and Public Health Nutrition
Objectives : Estimating plant-source food (PSF) intake is crucial for evaluating associated health and environmental impacts; yet, worldwide consumption remains largely uncharacterized. Our aim was to quantify global distributions of daily intakes of fruits, vegetables (non-starchy, potatoes, other starchy), legumes, grains (refined, whole), and nuts/seeds by country (n=188), super-region (n=6), key population characteristics (all ages, sex, education, urban/rural location), and time (1990, 2015).
Methods : The primary data sources of PSF intake in the Global Dietary Database were from national and subnational surveys identified by systematic searches of electronic databases and communications with data owners from 1980 through 2015, including 1,137 survey-years representing 185 countries (97.5% of the world’s population). To address missingness and estimate national and stratum-specific intake distributions worldwide, we used a Bayesian hierarchical imputation model. The model combined stratum-specific individual-level intakes with time-varying country- and survey-level covariates, and accounted for differences in intakes vs per capita availability from FAO food disappearance data.
Results : In 2015, global fruit intake was 114 g/d (1.1 servings (100 g)/d), with highest intakes reported in Latin America (146 g/d) and lowest in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region (97 g/d) (Figure). Non-starchy vegetable global intake was 203 g/d (2 servings (100 g)/d); highest intakes were seen in Asia (269 g/d) and lowest in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) (135 g/d) and High-Income (136 g/d) regions. Global legume intake was 17 g/d (0.2 servings (100 g)/d), highest in Latin America (52 g/d) and lowest in FSU (3 g/d). For refined grains global average was 215 g/d (4.3 servings (50 g)/d), varying from 254 g/d in MENA to 117 g/d in Sub-Saharan Africa. Intakes were generally similar by sex and urban/rural location, and higher at older ages and higher education levels. Findings for potatoes, other starchy vegetables, whole grains and nuts/seeds, and over time, will be presented at the meeting.
Conclusions : Such global data, showing substantial variation in PSF consumption by nation and population worldwide, inform and highlight the need for country-specific priority setting and nutrition policies.
Funding Sources : Gates Foundation