Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology, Aging and Chronic Disease
Objectives : While perceptions in the popular media suggest that bread consumption is linked to adverse weight and health outcomes, limited published data exist investigating various levels of yeast bread intake and associations with physiological and biochemical outcomes. The objective of the present analysis was to examine associations with deciles of usual bread intake and weight-, cardiovascular (CVD)-, and diabetes-related health outcomes in Americans.
Methods : Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2014 was used to determine deciles of usual intake of bread in adults (≥19 years-old). Percentiles of individual usual intake for bread (grams) was calculated using the USDA food coding system to define yeast bread. CVD risk was assessed using a quantitative tool approved and recommended by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology to assess 10-year risk. Usual intakes were determined using the National Cancer Institute method and logistic regression analysis determined odds ratios for health variables across deciles of usual bread intake, ranging from the lowest decile (< 27.86±0.40 g/day; approximately 1 slice of bread/day) to the highest decile (94.06±1.40 g/day; approximately 3.4 slices of bread/day).
Results : Decile trend analysis revealed no significant differences with decile of usual bread intake consumption and CVD risk score (least square mean (LSM) beta = -0.0008±0.0004; p=0.06). Similarly, no associations were observed for various biochemical parameters, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma/insulin, insulin resistance, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. No associations were also observed for body mass index (LSM beta = -0.005±0.03; p=0.88) and waist circumference (LSM beta = 0.0026±0.08; p=0.97). No differences were observed when assessing odds ratios (OR) for being overweight or obese (OR = 0.98, CI: 0.94, 1.02; p=0.18) and elevated waist circumference based on decile of usual bread intake (OR = 1.00 CI: 0.97-1.03; p=0.18). Similarly, no differences were observed when determining OR for elevated blood pressure, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and reduced HDL-cholesterol.
The current epidemiological analysis suggests that consumption of bread, whether in the lowest or highest decile of usual intake, is not associated with several weight-, diabetes- and CVD-related outcomes in US adults.
Funding Sources : Supported by the Grain Foods Foundation