Topical Area: Energy and Macronutrient Metabolism
Vitamin D intake, taken as supplements, has been linked to diabetes control through improved insulin sensitivity and regulation of appetite. However, this beneficial role of vitamin D when fortified in dairy foods requires further confirmation. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects vitamin D fortified yogurt compared with its supplement on postprandial glucose level, insulin sensitivity and appetite regulation in young healthy male subjects.
In a randomized, single blind trial, twenty pre-diabetic male adults (20-40 years old) were placed in three groups and provided to consume (daily) one serving (125ml) of either; i) plain yogurt (PY; 3% M.F.), or ii) plain yogurt fortified with vitamin D 1000IU (PYD; 3% M.F.), or iii) vitamin D supplement 1000IU (SD). Subjects were evaluated for fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FBI), HOMA-IR, HBA1C, OGTT, and gut hormones (leptin, active ghrelin, GLP-1) in the start (0 day), mid (30 day), and end (60 day) of the intervention.
Results : The FBG concentration was reduced (P< 0.0001) in PYD group compared with all other treatments, without disproportionate increase in FBI levels. Moreover, vitamin D fortification was observed to significantly reduce (P=0.003) leptin and active ghrelin levels, and improved GLP-1 levels (P=0.0003), compared with supplement group, but not plain yogurt group (P=0.057) at the end of study. Additionally, avg. subjective appetite was reduced (P=0.0017) in PYD and PY groups compared with the supplement group, over the course of study.
Conclusions : Vitamin D fortified yogurt possess better potential to regulate glycemic as well as satiety responses, compared with its supplemental source.
Funding Sources : Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan