Topical Area: Energy and Macronutrient Metabolism
Low protein diet and essential amino acid deficient-diet have an impact on body weight and growth and different studies also showed an impact of lysine intake on bone metabolism. Lysine has been shown to promote the absorption of intestinal calcium and to participate in the collagen synthesis through its involvement in the reticulation process of the tropocollagen beams. The assembly of tropocollagen bundle into mature collagen fibers is essential for bone formation and remodeling (civitelli et al, 1992; Fini et al, 2001). The objective of this study was to characterize the impact of low protein diet and lysine-deficient diet on bone metabolism of growing rats.
Study 1: 6 group of growing rats were fed for 3 weeks different diet with different content of milk protein at levels of 3%, 5%, 8%, 12%, 15% or 20% (% total energy).
Study 2: 7 group of growing rats were fed diets with different lysine content (as % of lysine requirement), for 3 weeks: 15%, 25%, 40%, 60%, 75%, 100% or 170% (% Lysine requirement).
Body weight was measured daily. At the end of the experiment, the body composition was analyzed and tissues were removed for measurements of the expression of genes involved in protein and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis was done by variance analysis.
Results : Rats fed low protein diet (3% and 5% of milk protein), compared to control have a lower growth, with a lower body weight and naso-anal length. This weak growth was associated with a lower lean body mass, and also had an impact on bone metabolism. There was a decrease in the bone mineral density, bone mineral content and femur size, associated with a decrease of markers of bone turnover and formation. The same results on bone metabolism were observed on rats fed the 85% lysine deficient diet.
Conclusions : Low protein diet and lysine-deficient diet reduce growth and bone metabolism. The impact of low protein diet could be related to the lysine deficiency, which have an impact on the calcium intestinal absorption and on collagen synthesis.
Funding Sources : INRA, AgroParisTech