Topical Area: Maternal, Perinatal and Pediatric Nutrition
Objectives : Sugar and artificially sweetened beverages (SSB/ASB), coffee, and tea are commonly consumed among U.S. pregnant women, but there is limited data on their use in pregnancy and gestational diabetes (GDM) risk and cardiometabolic profile. Our aim was to examine longitudinal associations between SSB, ASB, coffee, and tea intake in pregnancy with GDM risk. In two separate sub-samples, we also examined 1) associations between these beverages and cardiometabolic biomarkers and 2) plasma caffeine metabolites and GDM risk.
Methods : We used data collected from pregnant women at 12 U.S. clinical centers (2009-2013; N=2802) in the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. Women completed a food frequency questionnaire at enrollment at 8-13 gestational weeks (GW) regarding 1st trimester diet, and an Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour dietary recall was completed at 16-22, 24-29, 30-33, and 34-37 GW (N=1993). Plasma caffeine and paraxanthine were measured at 8-13 GW in a sub-sample of women without obesity (N=2106). GDM (N=85; 4.3%) was ascertained from medical records. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured in a sub-sample at 8-13 and 16-22 GW (N=221). All models were adjusted for relevant confounders including diet quality.
Results : Daily SSB, ASB, coffee, and tea intake was uncommon (Figure). No significant associations between 1st trimester SSBs (≥1 serving/day vs. none, adjusted RR=1.16 [95% CI 0.59, 2.28]), ASBs (RR=0.53 [0.16, 1.80]), coffee (RR=1.04 [0.53, 2.07]), or tea (RR=1.23 [0.57, 2.63]) and GDM risk were observed. Results were similar for intake at 16-22 and 24-29 GW. No consistent associations were observed with cardiometabolic markers. There was no association between plasma caffeine (Quartile 4 vs Quartile 1, RR=0.94 [0.47, 1.88]), paraxanthine (RR=0.81 [0.41, 1.60]) or their sum (RR=0.86 [0.45, 1.66]) at 8-13 GW and GDM risk.
In this diverse U.S. cohort of low-risk pregnant women with relatively low consumption of SSBs, ASBs, coffee, and tea, no significant associations were observed with GDM risk or cardiometabolic profile. In addition, plasma caffeine metabolites were not significantly associated with GDM risk.
Funding Sources :
This study was support by the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.