Topical Area: Nutrient-Gene Interactions
We aimed to examine the causal associations of potentially risk factors, including lifestyle/dietary, cardiometabolic, and inflammatory factors, with risks of coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke.
Methods : We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with risk factors as instrumental variables to test the causal effect of risk factors on cardiovascular diseases using summary-level data from consortia.
A total of 53 potentially risk factors were included. A Bonferroni corrected threshold of P=0.00094 was considered to be significant. Genetically predicted higher BMI (odds ratio: 1.43, confidence interval: 1.26 to1.63 per 1 kg/m2, P=7.64×10-8), smoking initiation (1.62, 1.42 to1.85 per year, P= 2.72×10-12), vitamin E (3.22, 1.81 to 4.63, P= 1.33×10-6). sIL-6R (1.63, 1.22 to 2.05, P=0.0002), LDL (1.60, 1.46 to 1.75, P=8.78×10-23), TC (1.48, 1.34 to 1.64, P=1.14×10-13),TG (1.27, 1.13 to 1.43, P=7.32×10-5), SBP (1.03, 1.02 to 1.05, P=6.8×10-5), asthma (1.07, 1.05 to 1.09, P=3.94×10-12), T2DM (1.12, 1.08 to 1.17, P=4.37×10-8) were associated with higher risk of CAD; whilst, genetically predicted education (0.64, 0.55 to 0.75 per year, P=2.68×10-8), and HDL (0.84, 0.76 to 0.92, P=0.0003) were associated with lower risk of CAD. Similar results were observed for MI. In addition, atrial firillation (1.24, 1.18 to 1.30 P=2.75×10-17), carotid artery plaque (1.24, 1.10 to 1.41, P=0.0006), asthma (1.04 to 1.02, 1.06, P=6.81×10-5), and T2DM (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14, P=0.0002) were associated with higher risk of stroke per unit increase in log odds. We further observed suggestive associations of morning person, iron, fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, uric acid, and pulse pressure with CAD and suggestive associations of education, intelligence, Hcy, HDL, and pulse pressure with stroke.
Our results identified several modifiable factors as treatment targets for prevention of CAD, MI, or stroke.
Funding Sources : None