Topical Area: Nutritional Immunology and Inflammation, Aging and Chronic Disease
Nutrition plays a critical role in systemic inflammation regulation and the risk of developing inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) is a non-invasive comprehensive literature-derived tool that evaluates the inflammatory potential of each individual's diet. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between DII and biomarker of inflammation (CRP), DNA/RNA oxidative stress (8OHdG), glycemic control [HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA) and insulin], and blood pressure (BP) among individuals with T2D and hypovitaminosis D.
Sixty-eight participants were recruited by community outreach. DII for each individual was calculated based on the values obtained from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. DII score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-Q4) ranged from -5.214 (maximally anti-inflammatory) to +3.999 (maximally pro-inflammatory). CRP, 8OHdG, HbA1c and GA were measured by enzymatic assays. Linear regression analysis was performed to test for the linear trend between DII and CRP, 8-OHdG, HbA1c, GA, insulin, and BP.
Results : Mean age was 54.94 ± 7.93 with 60.3 % of participants being female. Participants in the DII Q4 were less likely to be female and had higher 8OHdG, HbA1c and GA levels. A significant inverse association was observed between DII Q3-Q4 and insulin level (p=0.006 and p=0.030, respectively). After adjusting for covariates, the model remained significant for both Q3 and Q4 (p=0.040 and p=0.049, respectively). There was a significant association between systolic BP and DII in Q4 (p=0.029). However, after adjusting the model for the covariates the model lost significance. There was no statistically significant relationship between the overall DII, CRP, 8OHdG, HbA1c and GA.
A pro-inflammatory diet may be associated with increased risk of hypo-insulinemia and incidence of higher systolic BP among individuals with T2D and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. To our knowledge, this was the first study assessing the relationship between DII, 8-OHdG, HbA1c, GA, insulin, and SBP among individuals with type 2 diabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The results of this study may serve as a basis for future nutrition interventions to improve health status of individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Funding Sources : Funding for this research was provided through an NIH/NIDDK sponsored grant.