Topical Area: Nutritional Immunology and Inflammation, Aging and Chronic Disease
Objectives : HIV infection and cocaine use contribute to oxidative stress; persistent oxidative stress leads to rapid rates of glutathione (GSH) consumption. GSH is an abundant intracellular antioxidant and is synthesized from its precursor amino acids. HIV promotes changes in the components of the antioxidant defense system, resulting in GSH depletion and may cause DNA damage, and is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim is to assess oxidative stress, and biomarkers of inflammation in HIV-infected individuals from the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) cohort, on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART), with controlled HIV viral load.
Methods : A cross-sectional study of participants in the MASH cohort in Miami. Participants were consented and blood was collected for C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidized glutathione and percent of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH: GSSG). Anthropometrics included body fat measured by the bioimpedance analysis machine.
Results : Mean age was 54.6 ± 6.3 years, 67% were male, and 50% used cocaine, mean BMI was 26.2±3.1, CRP was 7.1±12.4, oxidized glutathione was 34.4±32.4 mmol, and the ratio of GSH:GSSG 4.86 ± 4.7. All participants had undetected viral load and were mainly overweight (70%) with a mean fat% of 28.0±7.1. Cocaine use was strongly related with CRP (r=401, P=0.014) and GSH:GSSG (r=-389, P=0.017) ; BMI was lower with age (r=-0.502, P=0.024); and fat contain was lower in males (r=-0.474, P=0.004); males also had significantly higher oxidized glutathione (r=0.384, P=0.018);age was inversely correlated with BMI (r=-0.335, P=0.027). A nutritional supplementation with antioxidants with a longitudinal follow-up of outcomes is in progress
Our findings suggest that cocaine use is significantly associated with markers of inflammations and oxidative stress in people living with HIV who are already at risk for these conditions, and interventions with antioxidants and detoxification interventions are important for these participants.
Funding Sources : National Institute on Drug Abuse