Topical Area: Community and Public Health Nutrition, Aging and Chronic Disease, Obesity
To derive dietary patterns (DPs) of Lebanese adolescents (10-18 years) and evaluate associations between identified DPs and household food insecurity (HFI).
Data was drawn from a national survey on a representative sample of Lebanese households (n = 1204, 2015). HFI was assessed using a locally-validated, Arabic-translated version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Dietary intake was assessed using a 187-item locally-validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal component factor analysis was used to derive the DPs. Partial correlations were conducted to investigate the associations between DPs and macro- and micron-nutrient intakes (energy-adjusted). Multiple linear regression models were applied to examine the association between HFI scores and derived DPs.
Results : Two DPs were derived from the study population: Western and Lebanese-Mediterranean (LM). The Western DP was characterized by higher consumption of sweetened beverages, fast foods, sweets, salty snacks and refined grains; whereas the Lebanese DP was characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and whole grains. The Western DP was positively associated with alcohol (r= 0.3) and negatively associated with fiber (-0.35), calcium (-0.31), iron (-0.17), vitamins A (-0.31) and D (-0.15); p< 0.05. LM pattern was positively and highly correlated with fiber, proteins, iron, Vitamin A (r ≥0.30); moderately correlated with carbohydrates, calcium and Vitamin D (r< 0.3); and negatively correlated with total fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fats (r ≥ -0.26, p< 0.05). After adjustment for socio-demographics, Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the higher HFI score was associated with lower adherence to LM DP among adolescents (β =-0.026, p=0.012, 95% CI -0.046, -0.006). No significant association was observed between HFI and the Western DP.
In conclusion, adolescents in food insecure households are less likely to consume the LM DP; the latter being associated with better nutrients’ intake vs. Western DP. Findings of this study can guide the development of preventive strategies emphasizing the adoption of a LM pattern among food insecure households and youth to promote better dietary quality and prevent risk of chronic diseases.
Funding Sources : Lebanese National Council for Scientific Research