Topical Area: Community and Public Health Nutrition, Aging and Chronic Disease, Obesity
Objectives : Using the social ecological model, the objectives of this study were to examine (1) the associations between proximate factors (food security and physical health) and measures of subjective well-being (SWB), and (2) the associations of distal community and country level risk factors with SWB, independent of food security and physical health.
Methods : Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) data of 5,585 respondents aged 60 years or older included in Gallup World Poll (GWP) 2014 and 2015 were included in these analyses. GWP collected data on several indicators SWB (eudaimonic, hedonic and evaluative), together with data on food security, physical health, social support and social participation, and country level factors such as quality of roads and public transport. We estimated three hierarchical logistic regression models for each index controlling for country and GWP survey year as a ﬁxed effects.
Results : In bivariate logistic regression analysis, food security was most associated with higher evaluative well-being (OR 2.80, 95% CI 2.05-3.83) and physical health was most associated with higher eudaimonic well-being (OR 3.30, 95% CI 2.64-4.14). Physical health was also most associated with higher positive experiences (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.59-2.10), and most inversely associated with negative experiences (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.41-0.55), in bivariate analysis. In the multivariate models, emotional support explained eudaimonic well-being (OR 3.66, 95% CI 2.41-5.58), and evaluative well-being (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.26-2.79), followed by physical health and food security, respectively.
Conclusions : Food security, physical health and emotional support were strongly associated with SWB among older adults in this study. Food security is particularly important for QOL, and has a bi-directional relationship with these other predictors of SWB. Therefore, continued monitoring the food security of older adults in the region remains important.
Funding Sources : N/A