Topical Area: Community and Public Health Nutrition, Obesity
Aflatoxins are highly toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species that contaminate a wide range of nourishment cereal and pose serious health problems for human and livestock with nanograms limits of acceptability in foods. This study aimed to extract, identify and assess essential oils extracted from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Rose) (EOG) and flower head of Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) (EOC) against aflatoxin producing fungi. Toxicity evaluation was conducted to ensure their safety.
Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation using Clevenger apparatus and identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). The fungicidal effect was assessed against penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from bean, corn and rice using agar disc diffusion method to determine maximum inhibition zone (MIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each extract. Toxicity evaluation was conducted on two groups of 10 male rats treated with EOG or EOC at a dose of 0.1 g/kg (1/50 LD) for 28 consecutive days against control group. Serum biochemical analysis, hematological parameters and liver histological investigations were considered.
The phytochemical analysis identified 20 compounds in EOG and 26 compounds in EOC. The most common compounds were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in EOG and EOC respectively. The highest MIZ showed by EOC (5.15±0.07 cm) and EOG (4.15±0.07 cm) against P. chrysogenum. The MIC showed that EOG has greater inhibitory effect against P. chrysogenum (2.5 μg/ml) whereas EOC exhibit strong inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with lower MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 2.5 μg/ml. Serum biochemical analysis and hematological parameters indicated minor changes in EOC and EOC group while liver histological features showed marked improvement in hepatic tissues of EOC and EOG groups compared with control.
Promising fungicidal effects of both EOC and EOG against aflatoxin producing fungi have been demonstrated, however further evaluation is needed concerning its safety.
Funding Sources :
College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia