Topical Area: Obesity, Energy and Macronutrient Metabolism
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to determine whether the consumption of afternoon snacks containing lower-sugar hummus/pretzels vs. higher-sugar granola bars improve appetite, mood, and eating behavior throughout the day compared to no afternoon snacking in healthy adults.
Thirty-two adults (age: 24.3±0.9y; BMI: 24.2±0.6 kg/m2) randomly completed the following afternoon snack patterns for 6 days/pattern: consumption of hummus & pretzels (HUMMUS; 240 kcals; 6g PRO/31g CHO(2g sugar)/11g FAT); consumption of granola bars (BARS; 240 kcals; 4g PRO/38g CHO(16g sugar)/9g FAT); or no afternoon snacking (NO SNACK). On day 7 of each pattern, a standardized breakfast was provided at home and the participants arrived at the testing facility to consume a standardized lunch. The respective snack was provided to participants three hours after lunch. Appetite, mood, and satiety questionnaires were completed throughout the afternoon. Three hours after the snack, a standardized dinner was consumed, and an evening snack packout was provided, ad libitum at home, throughout the remainder of the day. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was also completed from days 3-8 of each snack pattern.
Results : The HUMMUS snack led to lower hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption throughout the afternoon vs. NO SNACK (all, P< 0.01), whereas the BARS did not. When directly comparing the snacks, HUMMUS tended to elicit lower hunger (P=0.06) and desire to eat (P=0.09) vs. BARS (all, P< 0.100). Fullness was not different between patterns. The HUMMUS snack also led to smaller reductions in afternoon alertness vs. NO SNACK (P< 0.01) and vs. BARS (P=0.05); no difference in alertness was detected when comparing BARS vs. NO SNACK. Afternoon snacking delayed subsequent eating initiation by +80 min compared to NO SNACK (both, P< 0.05) with no differences between snacks. Although afternoon snacking on either HUMMUS or BARS reduced subsequent (evening) snack intake vs. NO SNACK (both, P< 0.01), daily energy intake was not different. CGM analyses are on-going.
The acute consumption of an afternoon snack, particularly containing lower-sugar hummus, improved select indices of appetite and mood but had minimal effects on daily food intake in healthy adults. Long-term trials assessing the effects of lower-sugar snacks on health outcomes are warranted.
Funding Sources :
Sabra Dipping Company