Topical Area: Energy and Macronutrient Metabolism, Obesity
We analyzed macronutrient distribution and its effects on Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among Weber State students. We hypothesized that MetS parameters will be positively affected by meeting the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) for carbohydrate, protein, and fat.
Methods : MetS data and two-day diet records were analyzed from 385 Weber State students (ages 18 to 65). Participants were separated by gender (Male: 128; Female: 257), and by macronutrient distribution. Groups indicated those who met all AMDRs for carbohydrate, protein, and fat, and those who did not. We also categorized participants as deficient (below 67% DRI) or sufficient in fiber intake (above/ equal to 100% DRI). The mean differences on MetS parameters were evaluated by independent samples t-test
Results : Females who met all the AMDR’s, had significantly lower body weight (BW) (μ1=64.8 vs μ2=69.9 Kg; p=0.042), waist circumference (WC) (μ1= 77 vs μ2=81.2 cm; p=0.028), HDL-C (μ1=51.2 vs μ2=56.3 mg/dL; p=0.032), and blood glucose levels (μ1=87.4 vs μ2=90.2 mg/dL; p=0.029) than those who failed to meet these recommendations. Participants consuming adequate fiber had lower BW (μ1=75.3 vs μ2=67.3 Kg; p=0.005), lower WC (μ1=83.3 vs μ2=77.8 cm; p=0.009), and higher HDL-C (μ1=48.5 vs μ2=55.4 mg/dL; p=0.021) (p< 0.05) when compared with their deficient counterparts.
Meeting AMDRs showed no effect on MetS factors among males. In females, meeting AMDRs had positive effects on most MetS parameters with exception of HDL-C. Although HDL-C was decreased, total cholesterol was also reduced. Thus, leading to an unaffected HDL/Total-cholesterol-ratio, a more reliable predictor of cardiovascular disease. Adequate fiber intake beneficially affected central adiposity and HDL-C levels.
Funding Sources : Weber State University Office of Undergraduate Research