Topical Area: Nutrition Education and Behavioral Science, Obesity
Subjective hunger, satiety, and appetite impact energy intake, so interventions addressing these are needed for weight management. This study examined effects on hunger, satiety, and appetite ratings when adding a self-monitoring wearable device to an 8-week weight loss intervention focused on reducing eating rate and dietary energy density, while increasing energy expenditure. The wrist-worn Eat Less Move More (ELMM) device tracks eating rate in seconds between bites, by time stamp and detection of wrist-roll motion, and tracks bites and steps taken.
Seventy-two adults with overweight or obesity (age, 37.7±15.3 years; BMI, 31.3±3.2 kg/m2) were randomized into two groups: intervention workbook only, or intervention workbook plus device. Before and after the intervention, participants consumed a standardized laboratory test meal after an overnight fast, and rated their hunger, satiety, desire to eat, and thirst on Visual Analog Scales (VAS) pre- and post-meal, 20 minutes post-meal, and 60 minutes post-meal initiation.
A 2 X 2 repeated measures MANOVA with fasting VAS ratings showed a significant time by group interaction (Wilks' lambda =0.81, F4,66 =4.00, p =0.007, partial eta squared =0.19). Follow-up analyses showed a significant time by group effect for hunger (F1,69 =9.56, p =0.003, partial eta squared =0.12), satiety (F1,69 =5.23, p =0.025, partial eta squared =0.07), and desire to eat (F1,69 =5.73, p =0.02, partial eta squared =0.08), but not for thirst. Post-meal analyses showed a significant group difference when controlling for total amount consumed (grams) and eating rate (grams/minute) (Wilks' lambda =0.75, F4,64=5.24, p =0.001, partial eta squared = 0.25). Follow-up post-meal analyses showed a significant group effect for satiety (F1,67 =7.02, p =0.01, partial eta squared =0.10), but not for hunger, desire to eat or thirst. Thus, participants who had used the self-monitoring device reported reduced pre-meal hunger, increased satiety, and reduced desire to eat, as well as increased post-meal satiety, when compared to those who had not used the device.
These findings demonstrate that the addition of a self-monitoring device to a weight loss intervention focused on reducing eating rate, decreasing energy density, and increasing energy expenditure may be beneficial.
Funding Sources : The Obesity Society