Topical Area: Obesity, Maternal, Perinatal and Pediatric Nutrition
Objectives : Observational studies in children and adolescents suggest that sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intakes are a risk factor for obesity, with obesity generally assessed using body mass index. Our objective was to investigate associations between child and adolescent beverage intakes collected longitudinally and percent body fat at age 17.
Methods : Iowa Fluoride Study/Iowa Bone Development Study participants were recruited at birth and followed longitudinally with detailed questionnaires sent at least every 6 months. Mean daily (area under the curve) beverage intakes of participants (n=174 male, n=201 female) were calculated for the age ranges 1.00-3.00, 3.01-5.00, 5.01-9.00, 9.01-11.00, 11.01-13.00, 13.01-15.00, and 15.01-17.00 years from beverage questionnaire-reported intakes of milk, 100% juice, SSBs and water-based sugar-free beverages (WBB). Three-day diaries and food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate mean energy intakes for these age ranges. Percent body fat (%BF) was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at age 17-year clinic exams. Generalized linear models based on the gamma distribution and a log link function were used to examine associations between the independent variables of beverage intakes (at a specific age range), baseline socioeconomic status (SES), sex, and energy intakes, and the dependent variable %BF at age 17.
Results : Adolescent, but not early childhood, milk and 100% juice intakes were negatively associated with mean %BF at age 17. For example, the estimated effect of 8 additional ounces of milk daily at ages 15.01-17.00 years was a 4% decrease in %BF at age 17 (95% CI 6% decrease, 1% decrease), and the estimated effect of 8 ounces of 100% juice was an 11% decrease in %BF (95% CI 18% decrease, 3% decrease). Neither childhood nor adolescent SSB or WBB intakes were meaningfully associated with %BF at age 17. Adjustment for baseline SES, sex and energy intakes had a marginal impact on estimated effects.
Conclusions : Adolescent milk and 100% juice, but not SSB or WBB, intakes were associated with lower %BF at age 17. The results suggest that associations between beverage intakes and obesity may depend on how obesity is measured.
Funding Sources :
National Institutes of Health (R03-DE023784, R01-DE12101, R01-DE09551, UL1-RR024979, UL1-TR000442, UL1-TR001013, M01-RR00059)
The Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust