Topical Area: Nutrition Education and Behavioral Science
Objectives : EFNEP helps low-income audiences acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to plan, procure, and prepare nutritionally sound diets. The study objective was to determine EFNEP participants’ change in HEI-2005 scores in 2013-2014.
This study was a secondary analysis of the 24 hour recall (24HR) data collected from EFNEP participants from October 2012 - September 2014. EFNEP staff entered entry/exit 24HR data into a web-based data evaluation program using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (version 3.0). Initial data set (n=135,021) was cleaned (n=122,961) and categorical variables established for demographic predictor variables of interest (n=97,522). Statistical analysis was performed using the car and lsmeans packages. In addition, linear models including age group, education, gender, race/ethnicity and entry HEI-2005 score were used. To account for testing multiple components, a Bonferonni adjusted ANOVA F-test was calculated.
Results : The mean (sd) HEI scores were 51.1 (13.7) at entry and 56.5 (13.7) at exit, with a change of 5.4 (16.7) after completion of the program (p < 0.05); nine of 12 component scores increased. The change in HEI-2005 scores was significantly greater as age increased, with increasing education, and in women. Thirty-two percent of the HEI score increase was due to increased fruit intake, 17% from increased vegetable intake, 17% from increased intake of “milk” and 20% due to decreased intakes of solid fats, alcohol and added sugar (increase in this component score reflects a decreased intake). Three component scores slightly decreased over the program - total grains, oils, and sodium (decrease in sodium score reflects an increased sodium intake).
The results reported here are the first known national documentation of change in HEI dietary quality due to EFNEP participation. Results indicate that EFNEP participation improves diet quality based on change in HEI-2005. This improvement was evident in nine of 12 HEI-2005 components and across all demographic characteristics. Results suggest EFNEP improves diets of this vulnerable population, potentially reducing chronic disease risk.
Funding Sources :
Agriculture Experiment Station NC2169: EFNEP Related Research, Program Evaluation and Outreach