Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology
To examine the trends in the consumption of fermented foods and sodium intake over time, using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
This research study is a secondary analysis using KNHANES data from 1998 to 2016 which is a cross-sectional survey. The target population was Korean adults, ages ≥ 19 years and the total number was 76,199, with 32,324 men and 43,875 women. Assessment of fermented food consumption and sodium intake was conducted via analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data. Multivariate linear regressions and logistic regressions were performed to calculate the P for trends by applying strata, cluster, and sampling weights by SAS PROC SURVEY. Age was standardized for all analyses in order to calculate P for trends for education, income, fermented food consumption, and sodium intake.
Results : A significant decline in fermented food consumption was observed in both men and women (P< 0.0001). Among fermented foods, kimchi consumption was greatly reduced while pickled vegetables consumption showed a marked increase. Similarly, sodium intake from fermented foods significantly declined over time in both men and women (P < 0.0001).
Conclusions : The consumption of fermented foods and sodium intake from fermented foods by Korean adults significantly decreased over time from 1998 to 2016.
Funding Sources : N/A