Topical Area: Dietary Bioactive Components
Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease in which lung tissues become fibrous and causes severe respiratory disturbances. Various stimuli induce infiltration of macrophages to the respiratory tract. These macrophages secrete various cytokines leading to development of pulmonary fibrosis. Aesculetin, a major component of Sancho tree and Chicory, is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the vascular and immune system. However, its effect on pulmonary fibrosis has been poorly understood. The current study investigated that aesculetin inhibited pulmonary fibrosis caused by infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages.
To differentiate to monocyte-derived macrophages, THP-1 human mononuclear cell line was treated with 50 ng/ml phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) for 24 h. Culture conditioned media were harvested from macrophages cultured in the absence of PMA for 24 h. A549 human alveolar basal epithelial cells were cultured in the conditioned media for 24 h to induce alveolar fibrosis. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated fibrotic proteins were measured with Western blotting from A549 cell lysates.
Aesculetin at the concentrations of 1-20 μM did not show any toxicity of A549 cells, evidence by MTT assay. When A549 cells were treated with conditioned media from monocyte-derived macrophages, the expression of mesenchymal fibrotic proteins of α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin was highly enhanced. In contrast, ≥10 μM aesculetin inhibited the induction of these proteins of A549 cells. The expression of E-cadherin and Zonula occludens-1 was reduced in cells supplemented with conditioned media, while aesculetin promoted these epithelial phenotypic proteins in conditioned media-exposed alveolar cells.
These results demonstrate that aesculetin may ameliorate EMT-associated alveolar fibrosis caused by monocyte-derived macrophages infiltrated into the alveoli. Therefore, Aesculetin maybe a promising agent treating progressive pulmonary disorders owing to pulmonary inflammation.
Funding Sources :
This work (Grants No. C0501612) was supported by project for Cooperative R&D between Industry, Academy, and Research Institute funded Korea Ministry of SMEs and Startups in 20.