Topical Area: Dietary Bioactive Components
Mango contains considerable amounts of phytochemicals, most notably phenolic acids, mangiferin, carotenoids and gallotannins. However, little is known how these compounds are metabolized in the human body. The objective of this study was to identify the phenolic metabolites in human plasma and urine after mango consumption.
Methods : Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline (t= 0h) and then at 2h, 8h, 24h after mango pulp (500 g) consumption by healthy adults. Pooled plasma and urine samples at different time-points (n=12; age 30.0 ± 7.6 y and BMI 22.4 ± 1.7 kg/m2) were extracted using solid phase extraction procedure. Phytochemicals in mango pulp were extracted using extraction solution (acetone: water: acetic acid=70: 29.7: 0.3 v/v). Compounds were identified and quantified using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) system coupled to iFunnel Quadrupole Time of Flight mass spectrometer (MS) and UHPLC system with Triple Quadrupole MS, respectively. Separation of compounds was achieved by reversed phase chromatography and compounds were identified based on mass accuracy (< 5 ppm), specific fragmentation pattern, previous literature reports and co-chromatography when standards were available.
A total of 31 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified in the mango pulp, including mangiferin (16.48±1.13 µg/100g fresh weight (FW)), catechin (24.50±8.46 µg/100g FW), and total gallic acid (2024.2±83.8 mg/100g FW). A total of 59 and 164 phenolic metabolites were tentatively identified at different time-points in plasma and urine, respectively. The compounds detected in 2 h plasma and urine samples were mostly small phenolic acids such as hippuric acid, cinnamic acid, abscisic acid, gallic acid along with their methyl and glucuronide conjugates. Other compounds such as pyrogalloyl sulfate, methyl and glucuronide conjugates, cinnamic acid, phenylacetic acid and benzoic acid derivatives appeared post 8 and 24h consumption of mango pulp.
Our results suggest that mango polyphenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized resulting in the production of various phenolic metabolites and their conjugates, all together contributing to the bioavailability and potential health benefits associated with mango consumption.
Funding Sources : National Mango Board