Topical Area: Medical Nutrition
The aim of this study is to compare dietary intakes and dietary inflammatory index (DII) between normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia.
Methods : Total 306 subjects (139 controls and 167 patients with recent-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorder) were participated in this analysis. Dietary intakes of nutrients were analyzed from responses of a 76-items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire using CAN-Pro 5.0 software, and DII scores were estimated based on the analyzed results of dietary intakes. The total DII scores were calculated from dietary intakes of nutrients unadjusted or adjusted by energy contents. Then, dietary habit, nutritional intakes, and the DII score were compared between controls and schizophrenia group. Odds ratios (ORs) for schizophrenia and correlation between DII and related clinical data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation test, respectively.
There was a significant difference in body mass index between controls (22.49 ± 3.07 kg/m2) and schizophrenia subjects (24.27 ± 5.18 kg/m2) (P = 0.001). Schizophrenia group had remarkably higher energy intake and lower dietary intakes in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acids, niacin, and vitamin E compared with control group (P < 0.05). And, dietary intakes of PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid, and niacin in male schizophrenia subjects were significantly lower than those in male controls (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the female controls, dietary intakes of folate, vitamin A, Fe, and Zn were significantly lower in the female schizophrenia group (P < 0.05). The total DII scores adjusted by energy contents were significantly higher in schizophrenia group compared with control group (P = 0.002). The subjects in high DII category had a significantly higher ORs for schizophrenia compared with those in low DII category in total (OR 1.945, 95% CI: 1.232-3.070, P = 0.004) and in male subjects (OR 2.929, 95% CI: 1.528-5.621, P = 0.001).
Conclusions : Our study demonstrated that subjects with schizophrenia had higher DII scores, suggesting the possible link between dietary inflammation and schizophrenia.
Funding Sources : -