Topical Area: Medical Nutrition
Subjects with schizophrenia commonly have metabolic syndrome and obesity. Inflammation is an independent risk factor of chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that dietary inflammation increases the risk of being overweight or obese in schizophrenia and investigated the relationship between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and body mass index (BMI) in schizophrenia.
Methods : Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were enrolled in this study. Participants were defined as overweight/obese in case of BMI ≥ 23. Amounts of dietary intakes were acquired from a 76-items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire using CAN-Pro 5.0 software. DII is a scoring tool to analyze the degree of inflammation from the dietary intakes of nutrients and food groups. Dietary habit, nutritional intakes, and the DII score were compared between normal and overweight/obesity group. Higher DII scores are indicative of pro-inflammatory diet. Odds ratios (ORs) for overweight/obesity were estimated by logistic regression analysis, and correlation between DII and biochemical data in blood was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation test.
Among 167 patients with schizophrenia, 82 participants (49%) were overweight/obese. The DII score was significantly higher in overweight/obesity group compared with normal group. The dietary habit score was higher in normal subjects in comparison to overweight/obesity subjects in men (P = 0.002) and women (P = 0.017). The overweight/obesity group showed significantly lower dietary intakes in PUFAs, omega-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid, omega-3 PUFAs, EPA+DHA, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, and potassium compared with normal group (P < 0.05). In females, the overweight/obesity group had lower dietary intakes in omega-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid, omega-3 PUFAs, and potassium compared with normal group (P < 0.05). Higher DII scores were significantly associated with being overweight/obese in total (OR 2.731, 95% CI: 1.335-5.586, P = 0.006) and in women (OR 5.735, 95% CI: 1.900-17.314, P = 0.002).
We found that higher DII scores were associated with overweight/obesity in patients with schizophrenia. Current findings may provide evidence regarding the involvement of dietary inflammation on the development of overweight/obesity in patients with schizophrenia.
Funding Sources : -