This network meta-analysis (NMA) compares the effects of different types of olive oil (OO) on cardiovascular risk factors. The literature search was conducted on 17.12.2018. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Randomized controlled trial (≥3 weeks duration of intervention) comparing at least two of the following types of OO: refined OO (ROO), mixed OO (MOO), low phenolic (extra) virgin OO (LP(E)VOO), and high phenolic (extra) virgin OO (HP(E)VOO). A random-effects NMA was performed for the following outcomes: LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triacyglycerols (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and oxidized LDL-C (oxLDL-C); and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was estimated, using an analytical approach (P-score). Thirteen RCTs (16 reports) with 611 participants were included in our systematic review (11 RCTs contribute to the NMA). In the primary analysis no significant differences for LDL-C, TC, HDL-C, TG, and DBP were observed comparing ROO, MOO, LP(E)VOO and HP(E)VOO. Both, HP(E)VOO and LP(E)VOO were more effective for reducing SBP compared to ROO (mean difference (MD): -3.16 to -2.77 mmHg), and HP(E)VOO was more effective in decreasing oxLDL-C compared to ROO (standardized MD: -0.68, 95% CI: -1.31, -0.04; MD: -4.18, 95% CI: -7.06, -1.31 U/L). In secondary analyses, extra-virgin OO was more effective in reducing oxLDL-C compared to ROO, and a dose-response relationship between higher intakes of phenolic compounds from OO (≥5 ml/d vs. <1 ml/d or 1- <5 ml/d) and lower SBP and oxLDL values was detected. HP(E)VOO was ranked best treatment for the primary outcomes LDL-C (P-score: 0.83), oxLDL-C (0.88), and SBP (0.77). The credibility of evidence for oxLDL-C was rated mainly moderate, for SBP and LDL-C very low or low. HP(E)VOO confer some improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, however, implications are limited by overall low credibility of evidence.