Poster Theater Flash Session
Vitamins and Minerals
Nutrition during pregnancy is a critical dimension not only for women’s heath, but also for the offspring’s lifelong health. Very limited national data exist on the usual dietary intakes of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to estimate total usual nutrient intakes (from foods and dietary supplements) of pregnant women in the U.S.
Methods : Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally-representative sample of pregnant U.S. women, ages 20-40 years (n=1,003) from NHANES 2001-2014. Total usual dietary intakes were estimated using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to adjust 2, 24-hour dietary recalls for within-person variation. Adherence with the Dietary Reference Intakes were used to assess the proportion at risk of inadequacy by the Estimated Average Requirement (%< EAR), assumed to be adequate by the Adequate Intake (% >AI), and at risk of excess by the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (% >UL).
Results : About 70% of pregnant women use a dietary supplement. Less than 5% of pregnant women have usual diets that are at risk for inadequate intakes of riboflavin (3%), niacin (1%), vitamin B12 (1%), iron (2%), phosphorus (< 0.5%), and selenium (< 0.5%). More pregnant women have usual intakes < EAR for vitamins A (15%), B6 (11%), folate (16%), C (11%), D (46%), E (43%), and minerals including copper (5%), calcium (13%), magnesium (47%) and zinc (11%). Few pregnant females have usual intakes >AI for potassium (2%) and choline (8%), whereas only 48% have vitamin K intakes >AI. The majority of pregnant women (95%) exceed the UL for sodium, while folic acid (34%), iron (28%), calcium (3%), and zinc (7%) were also of concern for intakes >UL.
Conclusions : Many U.S. pregnant women ( >10% < EAR or < 10% >AI) do not consume enough of key nutrients during pregnancy specifically vitamins A, C, D, E, K, B6, folate, and choline and minerals including potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc, while almost all are at risk of excessive consumption of sodium, and many at risk of excessive consumption of folic acid and iron. Improved dietary guidance to help pregnant women meet and not exceed dietary recommendations is warranted.
Funding Sources : Nestle Nutrition