Poster Theater Flash Session
Dietary Bioactive Components
The objective was to evaluate the effect of an aqueous phenolic extract from cocoa shell (CAE) and its main phenolic compounds to prevent the adipogenesis-induced loss of mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, targeting the inflammatory interplay macrophages-adipocytes in vitro.
CAE and its main phenolic compounds (protocatechuic acid, procyanidin B2, and epicatechin) were tested in cell culture of RAW264.7 macrophages and 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 µg/mL). Adipocytes were treated with the conditioned media (CM) from LPS-stimulated macrophages. Biomarkers for inflammation, mitochondrial function, and insulin sensitivity were determined after 24 h co-treatment with CAE and LPS/CM using chemical and immunochemical techniques.
LPS-stimulated macrophages showed reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and lowered NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines release when treated with CAE and pure phenolics. Inflammatory crosstalk created by stimulating adipocytes with CM was arrested; CAE diminished tumor necrosis factor-α (67%, p < 0.05) and highly promoted adiponectin secretion (12.3-fold, p < 0.05). Mitochondrial function, measured by reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial content, and activity, was preserved in CM-treated adipocytes through up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α expression (46%, p < 0.05). Significant (p < 0.05) increases in insulin receptor (9-fold, p < 0.05), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (3-fold, p < 0.05), protein kinase B (4-fold, p < 0.05) phosphorylation and a decrease in insulin receptor substrate 1 serine phosphorylation induced increased glucose uptake (34%, p < 0.05) and glucose transporter 4 translocation (14-fold, p < 0.05) in CM-induced adipocytes.
Cocoa shell extract polyphenols reduced macrophages-adipocytes inflammatory interaction preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. For the first time, cocoa shell aqueous extract showed a positive effect on adipogenesis and inflammation-related disorders.
Funding Sources :
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Banco Santander, United States Department of Agriculture-National Institute of Food and Agriculture-HATCH, and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation.