Presentation Authors: Amanda North*, Bronx, NY, Raymond Fang, Linthicum, MD, Jennifer Anger, Los Angeles, CA, Matthew R. Cooperberg, San Francisco, CA, Howard B. Goldman, Cleveland, OH, William Meeks, Linthicum, MD, Danil Makarov, New York, NY
Introduction: Female physicians earn less than their male counterparts in every medical specialty. We sought to determine whether such a pay gap existed in urology and explore potential associated factors.
Methods: We used 2,323 responses to the 2017 AUA Census to extrapolate findings representing the entire population of 12,517 US urologists. We limited our analysis to ages 34 to 65 to ensure a sufficient sample size of women. Urologists were matched on years in practice. We explored the association between self-reported salary (>$350K vs â‰¤$350K) and gender using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age and practice characteristics.
Results: On bivariate analysis a greater proportion of male urologists made more than $350K than females (56.9% vs 39.7%, p=0.01). There were no significant gender differences in self-reported weekly mean clinical (43.1 female vs 46.9 male, p=0.13) or non-clinical hours worked (7.9 female vs 9.1 male, p=0.23). Men reported doing more major inpatient procedures per month (7.8 vs. 5.6, p=0.02) and more patient visits per week (78.4 vs. 68.4, p=0.04). Women spent more time with each patient in a typical office visit (17.6 min vs. 14.9 min, p < 0.01). _x000D_
On unadjusted logistic regression, men were more likely to earn >$350K (OR=2.0, p=0.02). However, on multivariable regression gender was no longer significant (OR=1.6 p=0.11) after adjusting for covariates. Factors associated with higher odds of earning >$350K include: more clinical hours, fewer non-clinical hours, shorter mean office visits, more office visits, more inpatient surgical procedures, private practice setting, subspecialty training, practicing in the Northeast and non-white race (Table 1). Sex, urban practice setting, age, and Hispanic ethnicity were not associated with salary in the adjusted model.
Conclusions: This analysis suggests a gender pay gap in urology which appears to be mediated by a number of factors. While men and women work equal numbers of hours, women urologists are appear to be more likely to work in less profitable settings, performing fewer inpatient procedures and seeing fewer patients. Future research should seek to understand whether women choose these practice characteristics or whether external factors compel them to do so.