Presentation Authors: Andrew Sun*, Shufeng Li, Chiyuan Zhang, Michael Eisenberg, Stanford, CA
Introduction: While the effects of maternal medication use and comorbidity on pregnancy outcomes have been studied extensively, little research has been done on the consequences of paternal exposures at the time of conception. Compounding this, there is no published data on paternal comorbidity and medication exposures to help guide investigation into associations with fetal outcomes.
Methods: IBM Marketscan is a national employer-based insurance claims database with information from over 100 million individuals. We identified 982,862 unique men who had a child born between 2008 and 2016 (1,130,738 live births). We then looked for the presence of diagnoses and medications in the months prior to the estimated date of conception for each birth.
Results: Fathers for 50.1% of all births were on a prescription medication at the time of conception. The prevalence of this increased with age, from 43.9% in fathers 20-29 years old to 61.3% in fathers over 50 years old. The proportion of fathers on a medication increased from 49.1% in 2008 to 55.0% in 2016. Fathers taking medications tended to have more physician visits per year (52.4% with 2+ visits per year vs 19.6%) and were more likely to be diagnosed with obesity (65.0% of all obese fathers) or be a smoker (63.8% of all smoker fathers). The most commonly used medication classes were antibiotics (29.3%) and central nervous system agents (22.4%). The most common diseases at the time of conception were of the respiratory system (45.3%) and musculoskeletal system (40.9%). The overall health of fathers declined over the study period, with the percentage of fathers with a Charlson Comorbidity Index of 0 trending from 92.1% in 2008 to 83.7% in 2016.
Conclusions: The prevalence of paternal medication use and comorbidity has never been reported in the United States, potentially contributing to a lack of research in this area. In this study, we found that paternal comorbidities and medication use are very common and rising in prevalence. Given this, further research into the role of paternal exposures on pregnancy outcomes is needed.