My name is J Todd Purves MD, PhD and I am an Associate Professor of Surgery, Division of Urology, at Duke University. My clinical practice includes general pediatric urology with a special emphasis on neuro-urology, stone disease and complex pelvic reconstruction. I am also the Prinicipal Investigator for the Duke University Urinary Dysfunctional Laboratory. Our research program centers on inflammation in the bladder as an underlying cause of a number of benign urologic diseases. In particular, we have focused on nod-like receptors (NLRs) of the innate immune system. These receptors recognize patterns in various molecules released from damaged and dying cells (known as danger associated molecular patterns or DAMPS) as well as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPS). Upon recognition, NLRs form multimeric structures called inflammasomes that ultimately cleave and release the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. We have investigated the NLRP3 inflammasome, often considered a central processor of inflammation, in several major areas of bladder dysfunction including outlet obstruction and diabetes. We have shown that NLRP3 triggers inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms along with other detrimental changes such as denervation and fibrosis.