Presentation Authors: Hao Ping*, Beijing, China, People's Republic of, Na Lu, Qingdao, China, People's Republic of, Mingshuai Wang, Jiapeng Lu, Lixin Jiang, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
Introduction: The incidence of kidney stones in China has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, there is limited information on factors associated with kidney stones, particularly metabolic risk factors. We examined the association of kidney stones with new-onset hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.
Methods: The study included Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study participants who were aged more than 18 years and had an abdominal ultrasound in 2013 that was negative for kidney stones. Blood pressure, height, weight, blood lipids, and fasting plasma glucose were measured annually. Multivariable Cox regression models with time-dependent covariates were used to estimate the effects of new-onset hypertension, diabetes, and obesity on the incidence of kidney stones.
Results: There were 9667 participants without kidney stones in 2013 (mean age 46.2 years; 75.6% male). During a mean follow-up of 33.5 months (range: 6-42 months), 676 (7.0%) incident cases of kidney stones were identified. Kidney stones were more frequent among those who had new-onset of a metabolic factor versus those who did not (hypertension: 7.7% vs 6.0%; diabetes: 8.4% vs 6.6%; obesity: 7.4% vs 6.8%). Adjusted Cox models identified increased risk of kidney stones with new-onset hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.27), new-onset diabetes (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.07-2.96), and new-onset obesity (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.15-2.74).
Conclusions: New-onset of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity increased the risk of kidney stones in this prospective cohort study. Results suggest that a substantial proportion of kidney stones are potentially preventable by appropriate control of these metabolic risk factors.
Source of Funding: the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China