Chronic rejection is a burden on the long-term survival in renal transplantation. Diagnostic biomarkers would optimize the management of patients at risk for rejection. Blood cell immunophenotyping with flow cytometry is used in clinical routine. Our objectives were to explore an association between blood lymphocytes populations (CD8+CD28- cytotoxic T cells and CD4+CD25highCD127 regulatory T cells (Treg)) and the allograft histology. Between 2008 and 2016, 1097 renal transplant recipients were included involving 1640 biopsies associated with a blood immunophenotyping of CD8+CD28- cytotoxic T cells and CD4+CD25highCD127 Treg. Histological analysis of the biopsies were classified into 9 categories based on Banff 2015 classification : normal (n= 540), subnormal (n=79), antibody mediated rejection (AMR) (n=128), suspected AMR (n=83) cell rejection (n=41), borderline rejection (n=92), interstitial fibrosis with (n=255) and without inflammation (n=264), other diagnoses (n=149). Blood CD8+CD28- rate was higher in AMR (14%, p=0.04) and suspected AMR (19% p=0.003) than in normal histology (11%). Blood Treg was lower in suspected AMR (1.8% vs 2,3%, p=0.01). The multivariate analysis showed that for a similar patient any 10% increase in peripheral blood CD8+CD28- T cells was significantly more associated with borderline lesions (OR = 1.40, IC95 [1.1-1.8]) and with suspected AMR (OR=1.44, IC95 [1.14-1.82]) compared to normal histology. We did not find any association between histology and blood CD4+CD25highCD127 regulatory T cells. We concluded that the routine phenotype of peripheral CD8+CD28- T cells may be associated with histological diagnosis of borderline or suspected AMR lesions.