V1. Studies of the epidemiology of viral infections
Oral Abstract Submission
Background : Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States in 2006, rotavirus infection was the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among US children.
Methods : To evaluate the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccination on disease burden in the United States, CDC analyzed national laboratory testing data for rotavirus from laboratories participating in CDC’s National Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Surveillance System (NREVSS) during the pre- (2000-2006) and post-vaccine (2007-2018) periods.
Results : Nationally, the median annual percentage of positive rotavirus tests declined from 25.6% (range: 25.2-29.4%) in the pre-vaccine era to 6.1% (range: 2.6-11.1%) in the post-vaccine period. When comparing the pre- and post-vaccine era, the annual peak in rotavirus positivity declined from a median of 43.1% (range: 43.8-56.3%) to a median 14.0% (range: 4.8-27.3%) while the season duration was reduced from a median of 26 weeks (range: 23-27 weeks) to 9 weeks (range: 0-18 weeks). In the post-vaccine period, a biennial pattern emerged with alternating years of low and high rotavirus activity.
The implementation of rotavirus vaccine has dramatically reduced the disease burden and altered seasonal patterns of rotavirus in the United States; these changes have been sustained over 11 post-vaccine introduction seasons.