N8. Clostridium difficile
Oral Abstract Submission
Background : Despite overall progress in preventing Clostridioides difficile Infection (CDI), community-associated (CA) infections have been steadily increasing. Although the incubation period of CDI is thought to be relatively short, gastrointestinal microbial disruption from remote healthcare exposures (e.g., inpatient antibiotic use) may be associated with CA-CDI. To assess this potential association, we linked CA-CDI infections identified through CDC’s Emerging Infections Program (EIP) to Medicare claims data to describe prior healthcare utilization.
Methods : We defined an EIP CA-CDI case as a positive C. difficile test collected in 2014-15 from an outpatient or inpatient within 3 days of hospital admission, provided there was no positive test in the prior 8 weeks and no admission to a healthcare facility in the prior 12 weeks. We linked EIP CA-CDI cases aged ≥65 years to a Medicare beneficiary using unique combinations of birthdate, sex, and zip code. Cases were included if they maintained continuous fee-for-service coverage for one year prior to the event date. To calculate exposure odds ratios for previous hospitalizations, each case was matched to 5 control beneficiaries on age, sex, and county of residence. We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted matched odds ratios (amOR) that controlled for chronic conditions.
Results : We successfully linked 2,287/3,367 (68%) EIP CA-CDI cases. Of these, 1,236 cases met inclusion criteria; the median age was 77 years and 63% were female. We identified 69 (5.6%) cases with misclassification of prior healthcare exposures, most of whom (48, 70%) were hospitalized in the 12 weeks prior to their event. Among the 1,167 true CA-CDI cases, 33% were hospitalized in the prior 12 weeks to 1 year. The median number of weeks from prior hospitalization to CDI was 27 (IQR 18-38, Figure 1). Cases had higher risk of hospitalization than matched controls in the prior 3-6 months (amOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.87, 2.90) and 6-12 months (amOR: 1.43 95% CI: 1.18, 1.74).
Conclusion : Remote hospitalization in the previous year was a significant risk factor for CA-CDI, especially in the 3-6 months prior to CA-CDI. Long-lasting prevention strategies implemented at hospital discharge and enhanced inpatient antibiotic stewardship may prevent CA-CDI among older adults.