Category: Spinal Cord Injury; Cross-Cutting
Objective : o determine if individuals test positive for substance use at the time of injury and identify the primary substance engaged in at the time of injury.
Design : A retrospective chart review.
Setting : Level 1 Trauma Centers in Midwest region of the United States.
Participants (or Animals, Specimens, Cadavers) : A comprehensive chart pull (2016 to 2018) on adults age 18 and older with a sustained spinal cord injury were included in the study. Level of injury included: Cervical (C) 2- C7 (International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) code S14, injury of nerves and spinal cord at neck level), Thoracic (T) 1-T12 (ICD -10 code S24, injury of nerves and spinal cord at thorax level), and Lumbar (L) 1-L5 (ICD-10 code S34, injury of lumbar and sacral spinal cord and nerves at abdomen, lower back and pelvis level).
Interventions : NA
Main Outcome Measure(s) : Analysis of substance use prior to injury.
Results : Data revealed an 80% positive toxicology or self-report of substance use immediately prior to the onset of the SCI. 25% of males were positive for more than one substance at time of injury. Substances were identified as used prior to injury and listed as most to least prevalent: opioids (37.5%), alcohol (25%), marijuana (25%), methamphetamines (12.5%), benzodiazepines (12.5%), cocaine (6.25%), and synthetic cathinone (6.25%).
The substances used prior to injury were opioids, ETOH, marijuana, methamphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and synthetic cathinone. Though opioids were the most common substance used none of the individuals positive for opioids at the time of injury were identified by the medical professional to have pain as a secondary health condition either prior to or after injury. Pain, one of the primary secondary health conditions, warrants a pain management plan that includes both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.
Lori Eldridge– Research Assistant, Indiana University, Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana
Jennifer Piatt– Associate Professor/Associate Chair of Research, Indiana University, Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana
Jon Agley– Deputy Director, Institute for Research on Addictive Behavior Assistant Scientist, Prevention Insights, School of Public Health, Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana
Steven Gerke– Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine and Pediatric, Indiana University School of Medicine, Eskenazi Hospital, Indianapolis, IN, Carmel, Indiana