Category: International; Measurement
Investigate the effect of education and gender in the Greek Version of Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (G-HVLT-R) Form 1.
Setting : Community setting.
Participants (or Animals, Specimens, Cadavers) :
The 517 participants were recruited from the Neurocognitive Study on Aging. All participants were healthy, with MMSE score ≥23, 216 were males and 301 were females, over the age of 60. Education ranged from 0-17 years; participants were divided into four education groups (0-4 yrs., 5-9 yrs., 10-12 yrs., 13-17 yrs.,).
Main Outcome Measure(s) :
Education and gender effect on 1) G-HVLT-R Form 1 total score from 3 trials, 2) G-HVLT-R Form 1 Delayed Recall scores and 3) Recognition Hits.
Two-way MANOVA revealed significant main effects for education in all scores of G-HVLT-R (learning trials, delayed recall and recognition, p <.0001). Gender also resulted in significant differences in performance. Specifically, female participants demonstrated superior performance in all G-HVLT-R indices as compared to men, p.05.
Conclusions : Performance on G-HVLT-R is affected by both education and gender. Present findings support the development of local norms which include gender and education when adapting neuropsychological tools into other languages/cultures.