Category: Brain Injury; Measurement
Objective : To investigate a relationship between resilience as a personality trait and as an outcome trajectory for post-traumatic headache after a mild traumatic brain injury.
Secondary analysis of a prospective, longitudinal study
Setting : Participants were recruited through a trauma center and participated in follow-up assessment by telephone
Participants (or Animals, Specimens, Cadavers) : In total, 212 individuals were prospectively enrolled within one week of mild traumatic brain injury who were hospitalized for observation or other system injuries. Total of 190 individuals completed the follow-up assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months. Twenty-two were lost to follow-up; volunteer sample.
Interventions : Not applicable
Main Outcome Measure(s) : Participants rated headache pain intensity using the 0 to 10 numerical scale at each assessment period. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10, PTSD Checklist-Civilian version, Patient Health Questionnaire (9-item screen for depression), Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, Functional Impairments, Generic Health Status, and Perceived Quality of Life questionnaires were completed at 12 months.
Results : With univariate analyses and logistic regression model, every ten point increase in CD-RISC, the odds of positive trajectory increased by 70% (OR =1.78, p = 0.048). However, when adjusted for demographic variables, this correlation was no longer significant.
Conclusions : Headache is one of the most common symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury. When taking demographic variables into account, a higher resilience as a personality trait did not correlate with higher resilience or positive outcome trajectory for post-traumatic headache. Higher resilience as a trait was associated with lower adverse psychological and functional outcome after mild TBI. Further research is needed to see if resilience as a trait is related to resilience as an outcome trajectory.