Neuroplasticity (includes neuroscience)
Clinical Practice (assessment, diagnosis, treatment, knowledge translation/EBP, implementation science, program development)
Impairment of cognitive function and mobility are commonly found in aging. The transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), has increasingly purposive treatments for cognitive rehabilitation. It is inexpensive, easy to administer after well trained, portable, and home used design considered as the most cost-effective and good compliance therapy. The local effect of calcium-dependent synaptic plasticity of glutamatergic neurons, locally reduce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, remote effect of the interference with functional connectivity, synchronization, and oscillatory activities in various cortical and subcortical networks, involve in transmembrane ion conductance, membrane structure, cytoskeleton, or axonal transport, degradation of the beta-amyloid and other pathological proteins. In addition, tDCS can enhance axonal regeneration and neurite outgrowth and therefore hypothetically improve functional neuron recovery, produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that increases synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in the long term, increases glucose metabolism and also be useful to limit the vicious circle of auto-destructive events due to the increased Ca2+ influx resulting from excessive membrane depolarization or intra-axonal Na+ overload in the context of ischemia or energetic resource failure.
The pieces of evidence of tDCS appeared less than 20 years, it is quickly becoming a novel non- invasive brain stimulation in both research and clinical settings. As a safe and relatively painless, inexpensive treatment for modulating the excitability of brain tissue, tDCS has strong potential for application in cognitive aging rehabilitation. Therefore, researchers and clinicians are exploring the use of tDCS to provide insight understanding in the pathophysiology of cognitive aging and cognitive rehabilitation.