In April 1963, a Chinese medical team arrived in a rural province in northwestern Algeria. Thereafter, a steady trickle of Chinese doctors and nurses followed suit, offering a Chinese socialist mode of health care for rural and suburban communities with a “revolutionarily humanitarian” passion. This paper explores China’s global moral imagination by investigating the evolution of the Maoist concept of “revolutionary humanitarianism” as it was embodied in the Chinese medical missions during the height of the Mao years. China’s first medical mission to newly decolonized Algeria in 1963 heralded Mao’s ambition to make China’s “socialist medicine” capable of serving as a “world medicine,” and to forge a geopolitical confederation of Third World countries with China at its head. While this mission and its followers certainly served as a form of medical diplomacy in the Cold War, it also coincided with a surge in humanitarianism around the globe. Appearing in the 1930s and gaining currency by Mao’s advocacy since 1941, the concept of “revolutionary humanitarianism” gained new momentum and meanings in the burgeoning global ethics of emancipation. By using archival documents, testimonies, and published memoirs, this paper examines how Chinese administrators selected and trained medical aid workers who were deemed fit to fulfill the Maoist humanitarian ideal. It also explores how the medical professionals tested and reconfigured the ideal in their on-the-ground experiments in Algeria. The Chinese medical aid missions in Algeria during the Maoist era presented an alternative and competing model to the Western-dominated global humanitarian regime.