Increasingly popular worldwide, 'mindfulness' based on insight (vipassanā) meditation is largely of Burmese origin and is rooted in diverse Theravāda Buddhist traditions. Vipassanā, literally to 'see things clearly,' was promoted during the colonial and post-war periods in 20th century Myanmar. As a result, vipassanā is emphasized as the ultimate way of attaining the final goal, i.e. enlightenment, while the meditation known as samatha, whose aim is to attain deep concentration (jhāna), has been eclipsed. Against this current, the monk Pa-Auk Sayadaw (1934-) formulated a meditation technique requiring samatha practice until one attains jhāna, a prerequisite before undertaking vipassanā proper. This paper focuses on how Pa-Auk Sayadaw, as a reviver of concentration meditation or a pioneer of the modern samatha movement, reevaluates concentration as an authentic Buddhist practice. The discussion begins with a textual study of the Pāli Canon and extracanonical texts in order to articulate the historical development of Buddhist meditation in Myanmar. This textual study will enable a comparison with other meditation techniques to show Pa-Auk Sayadaw's unique interpretation within the context of so-called traditional Buddhism. Finally, in order to understand their motivations and the benefits that they experience through Pa-Auk meditation, interviews with Pa-Auk Sayadaw, other meditation teachers and practitioners will be presented along with observations of their practice at several Pa-Auk centres in Myanmar. In conclusion, this analysis will argue that the state of deep concentration acquired by Pa-Auk practice is essential not only in modern Buddhists' everyday lives, but in the pursuit of enlightenment itself.