Postwar Japan’s pacifism is typically assumed to be a result of Allied bombing, and the incredible privations experienced by civilians on the home front. While there is great truth in these statements, such explanations do not sufficiently describe how a society enmeshed in militarism turned its back on soldiering and war so quickly. For this talk I argue that the behavior of some Japanese soldiers and sailors in Japan following defeat significantly contributed to the emergence of popular anti-soldier and anti-military sentiment. Amid the demobilization of Japan’s armed forces after surrender, discipline collapsed across numerous military formations. This phenomenon most egregiously manifested itself in the form of widespread looting and sporadic acts of violence against the Japanese civilian population. Specifically, I will examine examples of servicemen and officers who caused great confusion and anger by engaging in the theft of military equipment and vast stockpiles of food and clothing stored for the use by civilians in case of Allied invasion. Finally, I will conclude by looking at a little known massacre of Japanese civilians in September 1945 by Japanese soldiers. These actions fundamentally undermined the Japanese public’s faith in the virtue of the common soldier and sailor, and helped give rise to a culture of pacifism in postwar Japan.