By the end of World War II, the Hmong who composed about ten percent of the population of Laos had emerged to play critical roles on both sides of the Cold War struggle in this newly emerging nation-state. The division of the Hmong had devastating consequences for the society as many died during the war on both sides of the ideological struggle. Moreover, half of the Hmong population ended up in exile in the West after 1975, and the tenuous political situation for those who remained in Laos is still a contentious issue in the present. This paper examines the origin and development of the Hmong’s division onto both sides of the Cold War with Touby Lyfoung and General Vang Pao serving as Hmong leaders on the Royal Lao Government side and Lo Fay Dang and Yang Tou Saichou on the Pathet Lao side. The paper explores the objectives of the Hmong Communists and argues that ultimately, despite the division, the objectives of Fay Dang and the Hmong Communists remain the same as those on the royalist side. The goal of the Hmong Communists were equally imbued by personal and ethnic interests—personal in terms of Lo Fay Dang’s own desire to displace Touby Lyfoung as supreme Hmong leader and ethnic in terms of the desire for the promise of ethnic equality and autonomy. In short, the Hmong were drawn to the Communist side by the promises of citizenship and equality, neither of which were fully obtained in the post-revolution period.