The imperial networks that connected British India with British Burma engendered both circulation of people as well as ascribed on these migrants various degrees of loyalty to the Raj. In the Second World War, these divided loyalties determined battlefield strategies. The “Chittagongian Muslims” (as per British War Office records) or the “Rawangyas” (as the Rohingya people called themselves) were recruited to fight in the Arakan campaigns on the side of the British against the Japanese. One of the bloodiest rounds of communal violence in the Arakan (present-day Rakhine state), transpired during the Second World War between pro-British Rohingya Muslims and pro-Japanese Rakhine Buddhists. These divided loyalties in the battlefields became entangled with post-imperial nation-building through partitions and the post-colonial borderlands that those partitions created. After the Second World War, the organization, training, and firepower that had come with the Second World War fueled further religion-based communal violence in the Arakan reaching a peak in 1948. The wartime ammunition dumps became a source of re-armament for some Rohingya groups that violently campaigned to join the recently partitioned Muslim-majority nation-state, Pakistan. However, with the rise of the Bengali language movement in East Pakistan that heightened with the violent police crackdown of February 1952, the Rohingya groups’ affinity for joining Urdu-speaking Pakistan became complicated and even traitorous. These ambiguities in religion, language and territoriality produced in the battlefields and reproduced in the borderlands continue to haunt the Rohingya identity till this day.