It is commonly claimed that mind-body dualism is entirely foreign to China—or “the East” more generally. This talk will explore how engaging with the cognitive sciences and digital humanities undermines claims such as this, and more broadly can help us to do our work as scholars of comparative cultures. Specifically, I will discuss theories coming out of the cognitive sciences concerning Theory of Mind (ToM)—the projection of intentionality and agency onto the world—gives rise to a universal folk mind-body dualism, knowledge that can give us a more accurate starting point for interpreting early Chinese texts. In addition, I will show how a technique borrowed from the sciences, large-scale textual analysis, can allow us to more accurately and rigorously assess claims about general trends in ancient texts. I will conclude by considering how early Chinese views of mind-body relations do, in fact, differ from some modern Western conceptions, and how taking a more reasonable view of cultural differences can allow us to genuinely learn from other and ancient cultures.